Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and the seat of government of the District 9 Federal.8 The city is located
in the Midwestern region of the country, along the geographic region known as Central Plateau. According to
estimates of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) for 2014, its population was 2,852,372
inhabitants (4,118,154 in the metropolitan area), and then the fourth most populous city in the país.10 note 1
Brasilia is also the seventh most populous urban concentration of 14 Brazil.13 the Brazilian capital is the
largest city in the world built in the century XX.15.
The city has the second highest GDP per capita in relation to capital (57,665.03 dollars), 16 the fifth largest
among the major cities in Latin America and about three times higher than the average income brasileira.17 As
a national capital, Brasília is the seat of the three main branches of the Brazilian government and hosts 124
embassies estrangeiras.18 the city’s planning policy, such as the location of residential buildings in large urban
areas, the construction of the city through large avenues and dividing it into sectors , has provoked debates
about the lifestyle in big cities in the twentieth century. The city project divided into numbered blocks, and
sectors to predetermined activities, such as the Hotel Sector, Banking or Embassies.
The urban plan of the capital, known as “Pilot Plan” was prepared by urban planner Lucio Costa, who, taking
advantage of the topography of the region, adapted it to the Paranoá Lake, conceived in 1893 by the Mission
Cruls.19 The city began to be planned and developed in 1956 by Lúcio Costa and the architect Oscar
Niemeyer. Inaugurated on April 21, 1960, by President Juscelino Kubitschek, Brasilia formally became the third
capital of Brazil, after Salvador and Rio de Janeiro. Seen from above, the main area of the city resembles the
shape of an airplane or a borboleta.20 21 The city, commonly referred to as “Capital Federal” or “BSB”, is
considered a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, due to a whole architectural and urban 22 and has the world’s
largest tumbled area, with 112.5 kilometers square.
The word “Brasília” can refer to the Federal District as a whole or just Administrative Region I, which is
basically formed by the Pilot Plan and the Brasilia National Park. The Federal District accumulates county and
state characteristics. Other administrative regions, also called “satellite cities”, which form the Federal District
are not municipalities.
Before the arrival of Europeans to the Americas, the central portion of Brazil was occupied by indigenous
MacroGe linguistic trunk, as acroás, the xacriabás, the Xavante, the Kayapó, the Javaés, etc.
In the eighteenth century, the current area occupied by the Brazilian Federal District, near the line of the Treaty
of Tordesillas, which divided the Portuguese dominions of Spanish, became route of passage for the miners of
Portuguese origin toward the Mato Grosso and Goiás mines . Date then the village foundation of San
Sebastian Master d’Arms (current administrative region of Planaltina, in the Federal District).
In 1761, the Marquis de Pombal, then Prime Minister of Portugal, has proposed changing the capital of the
Portuguese empire into the Brazil Cologne. The journalist Hipólito José da Costa, founder of Correio first
Brazilian newspaper, published in London, wrote in 1813, articles in defense of the internalization of the capital
to an area “next to the slopes of the rivers that heads north , South and Northeast. ” Jose Bonifacio, the
Patriarch of Independence, was the first person to refer to the future capital of Brazil in 1823 as “Brasilia.
Planning and construction:
In 1955, during a rally in the city of Goiás Jataí, the then presidential candidate Juscelino Kubitschek, was
asked by a voter to respect the constitution, internalizing the federal capital, he said Juscelino would transfer
the capital. Elected, Juscelino established the construction of Brasília as “metasynthesis” of its “Target Plan”.
The Brasilia streets tracing obeys the pilot plan implemented by Novacap company from a draft of the architect
Lucio Costa, chosen through national public tender. The architect Oscar Niemeyer designed the main public
buildings in the city. To make the symbolic transfer of the capital from Rio to Brasilia, Juscelino solemnly
closed the gates of the Presidential Palace then transformed into Museum of the Republic, at 9 in the morning
of April 21, 1960, to which the crowd responded with applause. The city of Brasilia was inaugurated the same
day and month in which the execution of Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, leader of the Minas Conspiracy, and
the founding of Rome.
he basic principle of the political strategies of Juscelino Kubitschek, according to him, was appropriate French
moralist Joseph Joubert, who believes that “we should not cut the knot that we can untie.” Based on this
maxim. Kubitschek made possible the construction of Brasilia, offering various goodies to the opposition,
creating facts on the ground and burning steps. Although the city was built in record time, the effective transfer
of government infrastructure only occurred during the military governments, as in the 1970s, however, even in
the twentyfirst century, many Brazilian federal government agencies are still based in the city of Rio de
Shows the effect caused by the modernism of the newly built city cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin’s statement, first
man to travel into space, to visit her in 1961: “I have the impression that I’m landing on a different planet, not
Some of the factors that most influenced the transfer of capital were national security, because it was believed
that with the capital on the coast, it was vulnerable to foreign attacks (militarystrategic argument that has its
precursor Hipólito José da Costa), and internalization of population and development and national integration,
since, due to economic and historical factors, the Brazilian population was concentrated in the coastal strip,
leaving the inside of the sparsely populated country. Thus, the transfer of the capital to the interior force the
displacement of a population group and the opening of roads linking the capital to the various regions of the
country, which would lead to greater economic integration.
Planned to have a population of 500 000 inhabitants in 2000, the population of Brasilia had already reached
2.5 million in 2010, considering all the Federal District. Brasilia is currently the fourth most populous city in
Brazil after Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Salvador, and seventh most populous urban concentration in the
country, surpassed only by São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Recife, Porto Alegre and Salvador .
Brasilia is located at 15 ° 50’16 “south latitude and 47 ° 42’48” west longitude at an altitude 10001200 meters
above sea level in the so called Central Plateau, whose relief is mostly part plan, with some slight undulations.
The flora corresponds to predominantly typical of the savanna area. In some places in the city it is possible to
observe species of gymnosperms, such as pines, and also various types of trees from other Brazilian biomes.
Nonnative species have been taken by the public company arborizadora City (Novacap) and replaced by
native species such as ipe.
O Distrito Federal tem uma grande variedade de vegetação, que compreende 150 espécies. A maioria é
nativa, típica da savana, e de tamanho médio, altura 1525 m.48 Muitos estão listados por Green Heritage
Distrito Federal, para garantir a sua preservação.48 Alguns chave: pindaíba, sumaúma, ipêroxo, amarelo ipê
, madeira Brasil e buriti.
Lago Paranoá aéreo imagem e da cidade (no fundo).
A preservação da vegetação no Distrito Federal é um tema recorrente, especialmente a preocupação em
preservar a flora originais. O desmatamento causado pela expansão da agricultura é um dos problemas
enfrentados no Distrito Federal, e, de acordo com a Unesco, desde a sua criação em 1950, 57% da vegetação
original não existe mais.50 Para colaborar com programas de conservação são conduzidos consciência e as
reformas estruturais para reduzir a degradação da vegetação e também a fauna e rios.
The rivers of the Federal District are well supplied by groundwater, why not dry up, even during the period of
the season seca.52 In order to increase the amount of water available to the region, it was held the damming
of the rivers in the region the river Paranoá, for the construction of an artificial lake, lake Paranoá, which has
40 square kilometers, maximum depth of 48 meters and about 80 km perimeter. The lake has a large marina
and is attended by wakeboarders, windsurfing and professional fishing.
Brasilia is classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, a UN agency and receives about one million
visitors annually. Among its most visited attractions are the various architectural designs of Oscar Niemeyer
The civic tourism is valued for being located in the capital government agencies of the direct administration and
representatives of the three republican powers. The main monuments of the city are in the Monumental Axis:
Military Cathedral Queen of Peace, Cruise Square (the First Memorial Mass), JK Memorial, Memorial of
Indigenous Peoples Complex Multisport Ayrton Senna: Gymnasium Nilson Nelson and National Brasilia Mane
Garrincha Stadium; Convention Center Ulysses Guimarães (CCUG), TV Tower, Cláudio Santoro National
Theater, Cultural Complex of the Republic John Herculino: National Library of Brasilia Leonel de Moura Brizola
(BNB) and the National Museum Honestino Guimarães; Metropolitan Cathedral of Brasilia Our Lady of
Aparecida, the Ministries, Justice Palace, Itamaraty Palace, the Three Powers Square: National Congress,
seat of the Brazilian Legislative, Presidential Palace, headquarters of Brazilian Executive Power, Federal
Supreme Court (STF), seat of the Brazilian Judiciary and Homeland and Freedom Pantheon Tancredo Neves;
and others. Among other monuments are the Alvorada Palace, the official residence of the Presidency (in
Sector Presidential Palace SPP), Catetinho (along the South EPIA), the Don Bosco Shrine (on Via W3 Sul),
the Living Memory Museum Candanga (the Core Bandeirante) and the Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge, better
known as JK Bridge or “third bridge”, internationally awarded (on Lake Paranoá, between the Sector South
Sports Clubs (SCES) in the South Wing, and the Housing Sector South individual (SHIS), South Lake) .
Brasilia is also known for its spiritual communities (such as Dawn Valley in Planaltina, the Eclectic City and the
City of Peace) located within its surroundings and also by modernist churches, such as the Temple of Good
Will of the LGW.
The city also offers ecotourism to be located more than a thousand meters above sea level in the Central
Highlands plateau immense, where rivers are born of some large Brazilian watersheds. The city also has many
green areas, such as the City Park Dona Sarah Kubitschek, (between the South Wing and the West Sector),
the Brasilia National Park, better known as Mineral Water (entrance on North EPIA), the Eye Park D’Água (in
the North Wing SQNs 412 and 413), the Botanical Garden of Brasilia (JBB) (in South Lake), the Zoo of
Brasilia (in Candangolândia) and the Ecological Park Burle Marx (between the North Wing and the Northwest
Besides being political center, Brasilia is an important economic center of Brazil, being the third richest city in
the country, displaying a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of 99.5 billion reais, or 3.76% of the entire national
GDP 7 also being among the urban areas with the highest rate of per capita income in Brazil.
According to Mercer consulting research on the cost of living for expats, Brasilia was placed in position 33
among the most expensive cities in the world in 2011, rising from 70th position in 2010. Surpassed in Brazil in
2011 only the cities of São Paulo (10 ) and Rio de Janeiro (12), Brasilia enters the classification right after New
York (32), the most expensive city in the United States. The city was the region with more expensive releases
of Brazil in 2012, according to the “Brazilian Real Estate Market Yearbook of Lopes,” with 51 projects
launched, 8,823 units and 3.3 billion reais in “sales value”, and the fourth largest national real estate market.
The main economic activity of the federal capital a result of their administrative function. So its industrial
planning is studied very carefully by the Government of the Federal District. Being a city listed by IPHAN and
received the title of Cultural Heritage of Humanity by Unesco DF occupation of the territory has different
characteristics for preservation of the city. So the government in Brasilia has opted to encourage the
development of clean industries such as software, film, video, gemology, among others, with emphasis on
environmental preservation and maintenance of ecological balance, preserving the heritage of cidade.
The economy of Brasilia ever had as main bases construction and varejo.Foi built on land totally free, so there
are still many areas in which we can build new buildings. As the city welcomes new residents, demand for
tertiary sector increases, which is why Brasília has a lot of shops, especially the National Assembly, located in
the center of the capital. Agriculture and poultry occupy a prominent place in Brasilia economy. A green belt in
the Region Integrated Development of the Federal District and Surrounding supplies the city and has been
exporting food to other locations.
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and the seat of government of the District 9 Federal.8 The city is located