Brazil Destinations, Corumbá

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With the name of Tupi­Guarani origin Curupah ­ which means “distant place” ­ and after other names
throughout its history, Corumbá is known as White City because of the light color of its soil, rich in
limestone. The occupation of the region began back in the sixteenth century when, with the
expectation of finding gold, the area of ​​the current city was explored by the Portuguese, who began
arriving in 1524. Funded in 1778 to stop the advances of the Spanish by the Brazilian border in
search the precious mineral, the Village of Our Lady of Conceição de Albuquerque ­ first name of the
village ­ became the main trading center of the region. When the passage of boats Brazilian and
Paraguayan Paraguay River was released, and because of the commercial importance which now
has the locality was elevated to district in 1838 and in 1850 the municipality. During the Paraguayan
War (1864­1870), the Parish of Santa Cruz to Corumba ­ name given in the emancipation ­ was the
scene of one of the major battles of the conflict, being occupied and destroyed by Solano Lopez
troops in 1865. From 1870 to be taken over by Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Maria Coelho, the city
began to be rebuilt. At the same time, European immigrants and other South American countries
arrived, boosting local development. As a result, Corumbá was the third largest port in Latin America
to 1930.Até the 1950s, the Paraguay rivers, Parana and Silver were the only means of integration of
the region. So the city was under the influence of the River Plate Basin countries, which inherited
much of their customs, habits and language. This was of course due to its border location and
physical isolation that suffered at the time. The arrival of Brazil Northwestern Railroadin the early
twentieth century, however, shifted the commercial hub of the southern state ­ then Mato Grosso ­ to
Campo Grande. The big local merchants moved to other cities and Corumbá started to commercially
prioritize mineral exploration rural activities, such as agriculture. The city started industrial activities in
the 1940s, with the exploitation of limestone reserves ­ excellent for the cement industry ­ and other
minerals. In the late 1970s, tourism has to be explored, revealing new infrastructure and enabling the
restoration of historic buildings. With the Pantanal occupying 60% of its territory, Corumbá came to be
called the Pantanal’s capital, becoming the main gateway to the wildlife sanctuary
Corumbá is located in the region of South Pantanal and near the border with Bolivia, on the edge of
the Paraguay River. The municipality is also stopping point of the rail link between Brazil and Bolivia,
the last Brazilian city before the Bolivian territory, which is separated by dry border. Geologically, the
county is an alluvial plain of recent formation of the quaternary period (2.5 million years), which is still
in process of sedimentation. The winding bed and unstable course of rivers form a large number of
islands, some up to 200 km2 area. In addition to the main course of the Paraguay River, during the
flood season, it has up to 25 km wide, the flooded areas are limited to the most depressed parts of
the ground, called bays, which generally assume circular or elliptical shapes. Between each bay, the
highest parts are called “mountain ranges”, where cattle farms takes refuge when the waters rise.
The courses that connect the bays during the floods are receding calls, and are called when corixos
are permanent and can be browsed even in the dry season. According to a study conducted by the
Corumbá Prefecture, the Paraguay River Basin is part of the geological context of the Paraguay-
Araguaia Geossinclíneo and is characterized by the occurrence of cleft through aquifers and
dissolution (karst), linked mainly to pre­cambianas rocks Group Corumbá and Cuiabá. Superimposed
on this basis, it has been the occurrence of an extensive coverage alluvial quaternary age,
represented mainly by Pantanal formation, which is a porous aquifer. The Pantanal is the most
important plain wetlands of South America. His biggest territory is in Mato Grosso do Sul, is known as
Pantanal and its gateway to the city of Corumbá. The South Pantanal is recognized as one of the
most exuberant and diversified natural reserves of the planet. The great diversity of fauna is one of its
great attractions: alligators, fish, capybaras, tapirs, deer from the marsh, heron, blue macaw, Jabiru,
among others. The Pantanal received the titles of National Heritage by the Constitution of 1988 and a
World Heritage Site and Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. According to WWF (1999), exist in the
Pantanal 650 species of birds, 80 of mammals, 260 of fish and 50 of reptiles. It is a region of great
importance for biodiversity conservation, considered one of the largest breeding centers of fauna in
the Americas. Here already we have been cataloged over 263 species of fish, 122 mammals, reptiles
93, 1132 butterflies, birds 656 and 1,700 plants. On the left bank of the Paraguay River and the
border between Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia, Corumbá is considered the first pole of development of
the region and for hosting 60% of the Pantanal territory, received the title of Capital of the Pantanal as
well as being the main and most important urban area of ​​the flooded region. It is also the largest
municipality in area of ​​Mato Grsso do Sul and the most populous border urban center in the North
and Midwest regions of Brazil.The city has always been strategic regionally to the entry of European
goods and their location, after Albuquerque saw (ending in Pantanal south), the last easily navigable
stretch of the Paraguay River for large vessels. This feature ensured a quick and rich growth between
the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, when the rubber of the Amazon also began to
be exported here.
Corumbá is the third most important city in the state in economic terms and in population (after
Campo Grande and Dourados), and the first in culture. It is the most important port in the state and
one of the most important river ports of Brazil and the world. It is the center of a conurbation with
three more cities: Ladário, Puerto Suarez and Puerto Quijarro (the last two in Bolivia). Thus, there is
an urban network of about 150 thousand people, being served by two airports: Corumbá and Puerto
Suarez. In 2008, he attained the status of leading exporter of Mato Grosso do Sul and was
considered the most dynamic city in the state and 86th among the 300 most dynamic throughout the
country, according to the Atlas of the Brazilian market in 2008, Gazeta Mercantil. According to the
IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), Corumbá has a GDP of over US $ 2 billion, the
third largest in the state and among the 200 top finishers nationwide. Although the industrial sector is
incipient, revenues generated by it overcomes the livestock and agriculture sectors. In the
manufacturing industry, it is representative of the production of cement, lime, dairy and yards.
According to IBGE, Corumbá has 98 manufacturing industries, the main branches are: mining and
quarrying, fish store, beef processing plant, cement production, concrete production, limestone,
mining, metallurgy, food products, non­metallic minerals, editorial and graphics, wood, perfumes,
soaps and candles, ethyl alcohol and vinegar.Another important industrial activity is the mining (iron
and manganese, and limestone and sand for cement production). Due to the nature of its rocks, the
Urucum Massif has large mineral reserves, especially manganese (largest reserve of Brazil) and iron
(third largest in Brazil). The exploration began in 1930. Manganese is extracted from underground
mines of Urucum Massif and the iron stores in the open. Manganese mines are among the world’s
largest, estimated at 30 million tons. Corumbá is also the largest producer of the following minerals:
dolomite, rock crystal, sand, clay, mineral water, optics and industrial calcite, copper and marble.
Tourist Spots
Casario Port ­ The General Port of Corumba is one of the main postcards of the Pantanal Capital. It
hosts a number of buildings that translate into a lot of fizzy past Corumbaense trade architecturein
the period when the city had the third largest river port in Latin America.The mansions now house
shops, advertising agencies to craft shops and bars. In the past were emporiums and bank branches,
as well as residences of families enriched with IWT. It is also in this area the first ice factory in Brazil.
In 1992, the Country house of Porto was declared a National Historic Landmark
Cristo Rei do Pantanal ­ Made by artisan Izulina Xavier, the Christ King of the Pantanal is situated on
top of the Cruzeiro Hill, in uptown. From there you can admire a variety of landscapes, both urban
and characteristics of relief and the typical vegetation of the region. One of the most beautiful views of
the site is the impressive setting of the sun Pantanal. The way to get to Christ the King is also an
attraction in themselves. Along the way, sculptures Izulina Xavier represent the 14 stations of the
Passion of Christ.
Artizu­ Located in the center of Corumbá, the Artizu is the home of artisan Izulina Xavier, where is
exposed its handicrafts, made of stone and concrete powder, ceramic and wooden carvings. Devout
Catholic, the artisan stood out for producing images of saints, highlighting the Christ King of the
Pantanal, and the image of St. Francis of Assisi the Pantanal, located in Square Salim Chamma, at
the gateway to Ladário.
Escadinha da quinze ­ Built in 1923, located at the intersection of General Rondon Avenue and
Quinze de Novembro Street, the Stepladder of Fifteen has 126 steps. It is one of the hits of uptown to
the General Porto, and one of the places where you can enjoy an unforgettable view of the Paraguay
River and the Pantanal, in addition to the royal palms that adorn the boulevard.
Forte Junqueira­ It was built soon after the Paraguay War (1871) in a privileged area, which overlooks
the Paraguay River and the Pantanal landscape. 12 guns of 75 mm belonging to the fort were built by
British industry Fried Krupp, around 1872, and were never used. The walls of the fort are of limestone
and have three meters thick.It is located within the 17th Hunters Battalion. The name honors the
Minister of War at the time, José de Oliveira Junqueira, who died in 1887. The visit can be carried out
with permission.
Igreja Nossa Senhora da Candelaria ­ Dating from 1885, the Church of Our Lady of Candelaria is in
the central region of Corumba, and is the subject of an episode of local folklore involving the religious
Frei Mariano. They count the old ones Friar wanted that the cathedral was built in his honor, which
did not occur.Faced with the negative and the definition of the church would honor Our Lady of
Candelaria, Frei Mariano would have buried his sandals and stated that while they were not found,
the city would suffer a period of stagnation. The building was listed in 1992 as a National Historic
ILA ­ Luiz de Albuquerque Institute­It is in a building built in 1871 to house the School Group Luiz
Albuquerque, named after the founder of Corumbá. In 1978, it became the seat of the Institute Luiz
de Albuquerque, Regional Center for Research and Culture, which was meant to contribute to the
integrated development of the micro Pantanal.In 1997, became a House of Culture, under the
responsibility of the Foundation of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul Culture. Currently, in addition to
cultural activities on site, is also the headquarters of the Superintendent of City of Culture
Ladeira Cunha e Cruz ­ It is also known as Ladeira de la Candelaria, to stay in front of the Mother
Church of Our Lady of Candelaria, or Ladeira Health, for hosting a public health clinic, or Ladeira the
captaincy because the corner of Delamare Street is the Port Authority in Corumbá.It is one of the
main accesses to the General Port and the Paraguay River. The official name honors a Brazilian
troop captain who defeated the enemy army in the resumption of Corumbá, during the Paraguayan
War (1864 ­ 1870), when the city became overrun. At the site, caught up the bloody battle of June 13,
1867. Today, the hill is known to be the main stage of the Festival of St. John’s Bathroom on the night
of 23 to 24 June. For her down processions to bathe the saint’s image in the river, a unique feature of
the June festivals in the region.
Independence Square­Located in the center of the city, Independence Square was once a zoo. Only
three squares, two in Brazil and one in Germany, have their building style, originally walled marble
with iron gates. It was inaugurated in 1917. The octagonal gazebo was imported from Germany, from
which also came the pavement mosaic from the outside. The square has four sculptures representing
the seasons, which were carved in Pisa (Italy), Carrara marble stone, donated by an Italian count who
came hunting in the Pantanal. In it, the corumbaenses revere their heroes of the Paraguayan War
and World War II.
Nossa Senhora Auxiliadora Sanctuary ­ Built in 1899, the Sanctuary of Our Lady Help of Christians is
located on the ground College Santa Teresa and is administered by the Salesian Diocese of
Corumba. It has inside a carved work of art in wood, the Christ on the Cross, life­size, made by local
artist Burgo, at the time a friend of Pablo Picasso. It was listed in 1992 as a National Historic
Craftsman house ­ Founded in 1975, Artisan House occupies the building of a public jail off in the
1970s and became a business place mandatory whom reaches Corumbá. On site, the Pantanal
artisans display their productions in leather, wood, ceramic, Sarsaparilla weaving, painting,
embroidery and crochet, in addition to indigenous crafts and delicious homemade liqueurs. There is
no record of the construction of the building, only its restoration in 1893.
Massa Barro House ­ It was in 1982 to encourage art in ceramics. The artists are children and
adolescents, using clay, recreate the fauna and flora Pantanal in great detail and colors.The young
artisans were discovered in 1991 by Johnny Thirty carnival, which twice led to Rio de Janeiro to
decorate the floats of the samba school Beija­Flor and Viradouro. The crafts produced in Massa
Barro House is recognized outside the country. One of the works that impress most is the stylized
San Francisco image in the bark of native trees.
Muhpan (Museum of the History of the Pantanal) ­ Opened in 2008, the Pantanal History Museum is
housed in an old house where running a warehouse in the golden age of river trade in Corumbá. The
collection tells the story of the formation of the Pantanal people, and the major difference is in the use
of technology to tell the story of human occupation in the Pantanal. Those who visit the Muphan make
a ‘journey’ playful, didactic and interactive for eight thousand years of history, from the time that the
Indians were the only inhabitants of the region, through colonization, the arrival of the Portuguese,
Spanish and Arab immigrants at glory period of navigation and the arrival of the railroad.
Forte Coimbra ­ Is the name of a small town on the banks of the Paraguay River, in the municipality
of Corumbá ­ about 100 km (straight) city ­ and almost on the border of Brazil with Bolivia and
Paraguay, where strong lies of same name and a village made up of soldiers from the 3rd Border
Company of the Brazilian Army. Built in the late eighteenth century, the fort was one of the main
defense points on the border of Brazil and the expansion in the imperial period. In its facilities, is a bit
of the history of military occupation, essential for the settlement of the region, represented in parts,
documents and the architecture itself. It is situated in a beautiful location on the right bank of the
Paraguay River. The maintenance is the responsibility of the Brazilian Army, and is open to
visitations, provided that prior request made.
Chapel Nossa senhora do Carmo ­ It is in Coimbra, 65 kilometers from Corumbá (to Porto Morrinho)
and two hours by boat down the Paraguay River. The image of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in the
chapel is the eighteenth century and came from Portugal, and the party in honor of the saint is held
every year on July 16, when devotees pay promises and make requests in search of miracles.The
chapel in Coimbra has many attractions for fans of religious tourism, including the images coming
from Portugal, which were attributed several miracles. It can be visited with authorization from the
Brazilian Army.