Manaus is a municipality, Amazonas state capital and the main financial center, corporate and
economic development of northern Brazil. It is a historical and port city, located in the center of the
largest rainforest in the world.12 It is situated at the confluence of the Negro and Solimões rivers. It is
one of the best known Brazilian cities worldwide, mainly by its tourist potential and ecotourism, which
makes the city the tenth largest tourist destination in Brazil. It stands out for its architectural and
cultural heritage, with remarkable museums, theaters, temples, palaces and libraries. It is located in
the far north.
It is the most populous city in the Amazon and the Amazon, with a population of 2,020,301
inhabitants, according to estimates by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in
2014. Despite recording one of the largest economies in the country and be a its most populated
cities, Manaus has one of the Human Development menoresÍndices (HDI) among Brazilian capitals
with 0.737 points (considered high). Originally founded in 1669 by the Portuguese with the fort of Sao
Jose do Rio Negro, was elevated to the village in 1832 under the name of Manaos, in honor of the
indigenous nation of manaós, one being legally transformed into town on October 24, 1848 with City
name of the Barra do Rio Negro. Only on September 4, 1856 returned to have his name atual.12
became known in the early twentieth century, the golden age of rubber, attracting foreign investments
and immigrants from some parts of the world, especially French. At that time was named as “Amazon
Heart” and “Forest City” .Currently its main economic engine is the
Zona Franca de Manaus (Manaus Free Zone).
With the sixth largest economy in Brazil, the city gradually increased its participation in the formation
of Brazilian economic sector in recent years, rising to account for 1.4% of the Brazilian economy. In
the ranking of the magazine América Economía, Manaus appears as one of the top 30 cities in the
line of business in Latin America. It was one of the twelve Brazilian host cities for the World Cup
Before the Europeans arrived to the Amazon, in the sixteenth century were numerous indigenous
peoples who inhabited the region. These were divided into different ethnic groups, which differed b
their languages and customs and engaging in fishing and cassava crop, promoting an intense
intertribal trade. Their rooms were spacious and airy, made of tree trunks and covered with straw.
Among the peoples who inhabited the current Rio Negro region, three stood out by the high
population numbers and influence against the conquerors: the Manáos, the Barés and Tarumãs.
Manáos constituted the indigenous ethnic group’s most important region, where abode both banks of
the Rio Negro and having population of about 10,000 Indians in the seventeenth century, number
assessed after the first violent conflicts fought with the Portuguese colonizers.
The region which is currently the state of Amazonas was part of Spain at the time of the discovery of
Brazil by the Portuguese, but was occupied and colonized by Portugal. The European settlement
period in the Amazon begins between the years 1580 and 1640, a time when Portugal and Spain
remained under one crown, with no disrespect to official Spanish interests by the Portuguese whe
they entered the Amazon region. The occupation of the place where today Manaus has been delayed
due to the Portuguese business interests, which they saw in the region to ease in obtaining large
shortterm profits, it was difficult to access and was unknown the existence of wealth (gold and silver).
Between 1637 and 1639, Portuguese explorer Pedro Teixeira left with a Cametá expedition to the city
of Iquitos, Peru, in order to take possession of the region on behalf do Portuguese Empire. The first
attempt at occupation of Manaus region occurred in 1657, when rescue troops commanded by
Benedict Miguel Parente cable came out of St. Louis accompanied by two priests: Francisco Veloso
and Manuel Pires. For a while, the troops stood at the mouth of the river Tarumã, which was planted
a cross and, as usual, prayed a Mass. In 1658, another rescue troops coming also from Maranhão
arrived in the region, looking beyond the native, socalled hinterland drugs. The natives had their
villages plundered by explorers and the rebels who refused to be enslaved were killed. The interest in
building a fort in the town emerged only in 1668, when Captain Pedro da Costa Favela, hunter of
Indians, to return to Para, convinced the governor Antonio Alburquerque de Carvalho Coelho tactics
need to garrison the region against the harassment of Dutch and Spanish. The task of building a
mock fortress was given to Francisco da Mota Falcao, who received the assistance of Manuel da
Therefore, the European colonization in the Manaus region began in 1669, with a fortress of stone
and clay, with four cannons. The Forte de São José da Barra do Rio Negro was built to ensure the
field of Portugal crown in the region, especially against invading Dutch, stationed at the time in what
is now Suriname. The fort was situated near the mouth of the Rio Negro and played its mission for
114 years, and the Angelic Captain Barros its first commander.
On 3 June 1542 the Rio Negro was discovered by Francisco de Orellana, who put his name. The
region where he was the Fort of São José da Barra do Rio Negro was first inhabited by tribes
manaós, barés, banibas and passés, which helped build the fort and began to live in humble huts
nearby mesmo. The “Manáos” tribe (the old spelling, currently better known as manaós),
considered proud by the Portuguese, refused to be dominated and used as slave labor and clashed
with the settlers the fort. The fights only ceased when the Portuguese military began connect to
manaós through marriages with the daughters of chiefs, thus beginning, the intense mixing in the
region and giving rise to the mestizos. One of the leaders of the tribe of manaós was the indigenous
Ajuricaba, strong opponent of the Portuguese colonization and supported, however, the Dutch. The
death of Ajuricaba was a great mystery: was taken prisoner and sent to Pará, having died during the
Because of Portuguese colonization, an oversight work was made or attempt to erase the traces and
historical works of indigenous peoples. One exemple is the destruction of the indigenous cemetery,
which is currently the Praça Dom Pedro and Rio Branco Palace. When the governor Eduardo
Gonçalves Ribeiro remodeled the plaza and leveled the streets that skirted, large numbers of
“ igaçabas” were found and currently there are no landmarks indicating its existence.
The population has grown so much that, to assist in the catechism, in 1695 the missionaries
(Carmelites, Jesuits and Franciscans) decided to build a chapel next to the fort of Nossa Senhora da
Conceição, the patron saint of the city. The Royal Charter of March 3, 1755 created the Captaincy of
São José do Rio Negro, based in Mariuá (current Barcelos), but the governor Lobo D’Almada, fearing
Spanish invasions, brought the government headquarters to the Barra in Place 1791, as it is located
at the confluence of the Negro and Solimões rivers, it was a strategic point. The Place Bar lost its
political and administrative status under the influence of Francisco de Souza Coutinho, Captain
General of Grantham, which started campaign against change of registered office, which led to undo
the act by Royal Charter of 22 August 1798 and May 1799, the headquarters returned to Barcelos. As
a result of the loss of her status became inevitable downgrade of Barra Place. In October 1807, the
Governor of the Province, José Joaquim da Costa Victório, left Barcelos, transferring the
administration of the Captaincy definitely the Barra Place.
From March 29, 1808, the Barra Place return to host the Captaincy of São José do Rio Negro, after proposal of
gift Marcos de Noronha Brito the penultimate governor sea captain and war, José Joaquim da Costa Victório .
By the Decree of 13 November 1832, the Barra da place went to a town, Now the village of denomination of
Manaus, name that would maintain until the 24th October 1848. With Law No. 145, the Provincial Assembly
Pará, acquired the name City of Barra do Rio Negro. In view of the village have taken the city forums, came to
be called the City of Nossa Senhora da Conceição da Barra do Rio Negro. The September 5, 1850, the
Amazonas province by Imperial Law No. 1,592 was established, becoming the village of Barra do Rio Negro.
Its first president was John Baptist de Figueiredo Tenreiro Aranha, appointed on July 27, 1851, which officially
installed the new provincial unit to January 1, 1852, with what their delay situation has improved a lot. The
Public Library was created and the first newspaper was founded on September 5, calling themselves The
Amazonas.32 Province Another prominent journal in the city was the Amazon Star, owned by the citizen
Manuel da Silva Ramos. It became, both the foundation of the local culture development, next to the theater
and professional schools.
In September 4, 1856, by Law 68, already during the second government of Herculano Ferreira Pena, the
Provincial Assembly Amazonense gave him Manaus City name in honor of the Indian nation manaos.
The Cabanagem was a political movement and social conflict occurred between 1835 and 1840 in Pará
involving free and poor men, mostly Indians and mestizos who rebelled against the local political elite and took
power. The entrance of the Upper Amazon County (now Manaus, which was the manifesto of the cradle in the
Western Amazon) in Cabanagem was instrumental in the birth of the current state of Amazonas. During the
period of the revolution, the cabanos of Alto Amazonas District pioneered throughout the state space where
there was a settlement, so as to achieve a greater number of adherents to the movement, occurring with this
integration of the surrounding populations and thus forming the state.
In Rio de Janeiro, the Federative Republic of Brazil was proclaimed on November 15, 1889, extinguished the
Empire. The province of Amazonas became the state of Amazonas, with the capital city of Manáos.33 Rubber
raw material of global industries, was increasingly required, and the Amazon as one of the world’s leading
producers, guided his economy to meet the growing demanda.36 intensified the migration to Manaus
Brazilians from other regions, especially the Northeast. According to the 1872 census, 2,199 foreigners
immigrated to the Amazon, attracted by the production of rubber, and most of these went to live in Manaus.
Immigrants were mainly Portuguese, English, French, Italian and other daAmérica regions, generating a
population growth that forced the city to undergo significant changes. At that time, the Brazilian Northeast was
hit by the “Great Drought of 18771878”, which caused over a million deaths, and a major epidemic of cholera.
Many Northeast came to Manaus escaped this phenomenon, coming to the site in large massas.39 Despite
the rubber decline in the early twentieth century, the city continued to receive a remarkable number of
immigrants. The 1920 census recorded 9,963 foreign inhabitants in the Amazon, with most of these living in
Manaus. Japanese ealemães Turks were registered in this census.
In 1892, began the Eduardo Ribeiro government, which played an important role in transforming the city
through the development and implementation of a plan to coordinate their growth. This period (18901910) is
known as the golden age of rubber. The city won the public transport service of electric trams, telephone,
electricity and running water, plus a floating port, which now receive ships of the most varied silent and various
flags. The metropolis of rubber started the year 1900 with a population of around 20,000 inhabitants, with long,
straight streets, paved with granite and IOLs stones imported from Portugal, squares and manicured gardens,
beautiful fountains and monuments, a theater sumptuous , hotels, banking institutions, palaces and all the
refinements of a modern city.
In the heyday of the rubber, the city was an international reference in discussions on tropical diseases,
sanitation and public health. The golden age promoted numerous actions in this area, such as the partnership
with international scientists that culminated in the eradication of yellow fever in 1913. In the early twentieth
century, sanitation actions were practically restricted to Manaus.
The situation changed after the creation of Sanitation and Rural Prophylaxis Service, which led sanitation to
other parts of Amazonas. The infrastructure of the time covered fixed bases of operation in the gutters of the
main rivers and vessels that roamed the coastal communities. The peak of the economic cycle led to the city
the same improvements that came to Rio de Janeiro, the former capital federal. Economic development also
gave wide circulation of ideas and allowed the emergence of a core group of doctors who were abreast of
scientific discussions more Advanced regarding the control of tropical diseases. Schools newly created tropical
medicine, such as London and Liverpool, England, sent frequent missions to Manaus.
In 1910, Manaus still lived the euphoria of high rubber prices, when it was surprised by the very strong
competition from planted and natural rubber extracted from rubber trees in Asia, coming precipitously
international markets. It was the end of the exportation of the product field of natural rubber from the Amazon
(almost exclusively generated in the Amazon), triggering the start of a slow economic agony for the region. The
performance of Manauense trade has become critical and imports of luxury items and superfluous fell quickly.
Manaus, abandoned by those who could leave, plunged into a deep slump. The buildings and various public
services entered into a state of neglect.
With the implementation of the Manaus Free Zone in the 1960s, the town again occupied a prominent place
among the leading in Brazil and Latin America. Next to Cuiaba, capital of Mato Grosso, is the capital that grew
most economically in the last forty years, a fact explained mainly by the implementation and development of
the Manaus Free Zone, which also attracted thousands of migrants who occupied a disorderly manner the
periphery of cidade.
The military regime in Brazil had proposed to take up a hitherto sparsely populated region, on the grounds
create profitability conditions econômica.47 A very great urban and demographic expansion of Manaus in the
1970s brought positive and negative consequences for the city, which saw If forced to house more and more
migrants from various regions of Brazil and in the state, attracted to a better quality of vida.48 On
environmental issues, Manaus underwent several illegal occupation of its green areas between the 1970s and
1980s, giving rise, in turn, much of the suburbs the urban area. In 2006, it was found that the municipality had
already deforested 22% of its area urbana.49 Until the mid1970s, the Manauense population was
concentrated mostly in the south, southcentral, west and centerwest municipality, with a dense population
living on creeks margins. As a measure to distort the major illegal occupation of lots in Manaus, the
government went on to create regular land allotments facing migrants who came to the city. Districts such as
New Town, St. Joseph the Worker and Armando Mendes appeared this initiative. During this period,
accentuated if environmental degradation, especially in eastern and northern areas, since these areas of the
city suffered the greatest environmental impact, pollution of rivers and loss of biodiversity and native forest in
In 1991, the municipality totaled one million inhabitants, of which 23 years later, in 2014, exceeded two million
habitantes.52 53 If currently set at the twentysixth most populous city in America and the seventh most
populous in Brazil , housing more than half of the Amazon population. In the economic and educational issue,
is among the five municipalities with participation above 0.5% in the country’s GDP to grow more economically,
55e home to the oldest university in the country, the Federal University of Amazonas, founded in 1909.
However, despite the recorded quality of life growth, metropolitan region of Manaus (RMM), which the
municipality is based, has the second worst Human Development Index (HDI) among the 16 major cities in
Brazil, with 0,720 points, higher only the Metropolitan Region of São Luís.
On May 30, 2007, the Metropolitan Region of Manaus was created by State Law No. 52. By law, Manaus was
set to host the metropolitan area, which is now formed by seven other municipalities: Careiro of Varzea,
Iranduba , Itacoatiara, Manacapuru, Novo Airão, Presidente Figueiredo and Rio Preto da Eva. The
metropolitan region of Manaus was the second to be established in Brazil’s Northern Region, making it the
largest country in land area, with its 101,475 km2.
Geographically Manaus is located ‘the left bank of the Black River, with an area of 11,401.058 square
kilometers and a density of 177.2 inhab. / Km2, being the second largest state capital in Brazil by land area.
Islands, archipelagos and ecological areas are found near the city, especially the archipelago of Anavilhanas,
located on the border with New Airão, and the Meeting of the Waters, famous postcard of the city.
The relief is characterized by lowlands, low plateaus and lowlands, with an average altitude of less than 100
meters. The plains are composed of sediments Age Antropozóica; become quite visible nearby rivers. The
elevations are found on the border with Venezuela and Roraima, where we find the mountains of Itapirapecó,
Imeri, Urucuzeiro and Cupim.64
The rivers that pass through Manaus are Negro and Solimões and when they meet, they form the great
Amazon River. The Black River is the largest left tributary of the Amazon River, the longest river of black water
in the world and the second largest in volume of water second only to Amazon. It has its origin between the
basins of the Orinoco and Amazon river and also connects with the Orinoco by Cassiquiare Canal. In
Colombia, which has its source, it is called the river Guainia. Its main tributaries are the White River and the
Vaupés river that dispute be the beginning of the Orinoco river with the Guaviare River drains the eastern
region of the Andes in Colombia. After going through Manaus, joins the Solimões river and starts to call up the
Amazon River. The Solimões river begins in Peru and, upon entering Brazil in the city of Tabatinga, is called
Solimões. The Amazon River is the longest river on Earth, both in volume of water as in length (6992.06 km
long). It has its origin in the source of the river Apurímac (top of the western part of the Andes), in southern
Peru, and flows into the Atlantic Ocean, along the river Tocantins.
According to the IBGE economy data, Manaus has the 6th largest gross domestic product (GDP) between the
cities of Brazil, with a value of R $ 49,824,579,000 in 2012. However, the city of GDP fell in the gross amount,
compared to 2011, when it totaled R $ 51,025,146,000, being the only capital in the country to file a
descending order in this regard. The per capita income in 2012 was R $ 26,760, one also lower compared to
2011, when it registered R$ 27,845. The city has the highest GDP among all cities in the state of Amazonas
and the Northern Region, and the second highest per capita income among the Amazonian municipalities.
Manaus contributes 77.7% of the state of Amazonas GDP, the highest dependency ratio observed in Brazil,
according to IBGE. Currently, the municipality has a GDP at least three times higher than before the
implementation of the economic model of the Free Zone.
The rapid development of Manaus for a large city took place mainly through the dispersal of industries in the
city, resulting in great importance of this sector to its economy. Although the secondary sector account for
much of the Manauense GDP, there are records of a significant decrease in its concentration in recent years,
given the fact the growth of economic participation of other sectors, such as construction, ecotourism, sports
Within the territorial limits of the municipality, it is the refinery Isaac Sabbá belonging to Petrobras. It has an
installed capacity of 46,000 barrels / day. Under the name of Oil Company of the Amazon, the refinery was
installed on the banks of the Rio Negro by Isaac Benaion Sabbá on September 6, 1956, but its official
inauguration took place only on January 3, 1957 and was inaugurated by Juscelino Kubitschek , aiming at
stimulating the region which still felt the negative effects of the rubber crisis time. In 1971, Petrobras took
control of the company, which was renamed Manaus Refinery (Reman) and in 1997 renamed Refinery Isaac
Sabbá. Its main products are distributed and cooking gas, gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oils, asphalts and
The secondary is the second largest contribution of industry to the local economy, with the same level of
importance of the tertiary sector, since the economic difference between the two is relatively small. In 2012, the
gross value of the industry at current prices was 16,272,139,000 dollars.
The Manaus Free Trade Zone, the main economic object of the secondary sector, is one of the main industrial
centers of Brazil, hosting important industries in the areas of transport and comunicações.182 It is an
economic model project with characteristics of tax exemption implemented by Brazilian government in 1967,
through DecreeLaw No. 291, aiming to economically develop the Amazon at the same time that stimulates
the preservation of biodiversity and the environment integrate it into the rest of the country and ensuring
national sovereignty over its borders with countries Andean. Although most of its industries are based in
Manaus Free Zone also covers the states of Acre, Rondonia and Roraima and, more recently, the Amapá. The
Tax on Sales and Services (ICMS) Free Zone is 12%, while in other regions of the country is only 4%. The
Excise Tax (IPI), PIS / PASEP and the Contribution to Social Security Financing (COFINS) is 0% and the
income tax is 75% lower than in other parts of Brazil. It is administered by “Superintendência the Manaus Free
Zone (SUFRAMA)”, a municipality of linked federal government to the Ministry of Development, Industry and
Foreign Trade created and regulated by DecreeLaw No. 288 of February 28, 1967.
Most of the exports from the Manaus Free Trade Zone is destined to Argentina, with 168 011 039 products
being exported to that country in 2010. Venezuela, Colombia and Mexico are other countries that import
products from the industrial center. In 2010, India, Hungary, Germany and the Netherlands were the countries
outside the American continent more registered imports of products manufactured in the Manaus Free Zone.
In the tertiary sector is currently the major source of GDP of the municipality, highlighting mainly in services,
which yields 22,240,821,000 real to municipal gross domestic product.
Some shopping centers are established in the city, including the Amazonas Shopping (the first in the city,
opened in 1991) and Shopping Ponta Negra. There are a total of 11 shopping centers in Manaus, and the top
three in the Northern Region are located in the city, and they Manaus Via Norte, the Manauara Shopping and
Kapok Park Mall. Other shopping centers are the Millenium Shopping Mall, Manaus Plaza Shopping, Shopping
Grande Circular, Val Mall Manaus and the Studio 5 Festival Mall, which have together 271,542 m2 of gross
Trade is also carried into popular places such as markets and fairs, which are administered by the Municipal
Production and Supply (SEMPAB) called Municipal Markets and Fairs by 2009. The Department of Informal
Trade (DECIN), City Hall, is the organization which deals with the supervision and control of informal trade in
the city, according to Law No. 674 of 2002. A total of 7 084 street vendors have registration at the town hall,
with most of them working in the Center, in Praia Ponta Negra and the five bus terminals. According to data
from the Secretary of Production and Supply, Manaus has 34 fairs, markets and 8 popular 2 wheels fairs. The
main fairs in the city are the Fair Producer, Panair, 198 of Effort, banana, Crowned, the ManausModern and
The municipality is the largest tourist destination in the Amazon and was the 8th Brazilian destination most
visited by foreigners in 2013. There are a significant number of jungle lodges in its metropolitan area, which
also act as tourist attractions. One of the main attractions is the Teatro Amazonas, architectural and cultural
symbol dating back to 1896 the heyday of rubber Cultural and Artistic Heritage State Amazonas.202
The region received the green better target premium of Latin America, awarded in voting done by the world
tourism market, during the World Travel Market, held in London in 2009. In 2010, in a survey of visitors,
tourism was evaluated as satisfactory by 92.4% of domestic tourists and 94% among foreign tourists.
Throughout the year, receives large amounts of cruise ships, as there is access to transatlantic through
Amazon. The city to cruise visits occur seasonally, usually between October and April each year. On average,
Manaus receives 23 ships per season. Europeans are the ones who visit the city by cruise ships, especially the
Germans. The Americans also account for a significant share of cruise ship tourists. Ecotourism, also called
nature tourism, is particularly explorado.14 Among the natural attractions of the city are: The Meeting of the
Waters, a natural phenomenon caused by the meeting of muddy waters of the Solimões River with the dark
waters of the Rio Negro , which run about six kilometers without misturarem.62 This phenomenon occurs due
to the temperature and density of the waters, and also the speed of their currents; Ponta Negra beach, a river
beach on the banks of the Rio Negro, located 13 km from the center. It comes in better conditions during the
ebb of the river in September; Moon Beach, located on the left bank of the Rio Negro, distant 23 kilometers
from Manaus by boat. It is shaped like a moon in first quarter and a rare natural beauty vegetation with a white
stretch of sand and bathed by the black waters of the Rio Negro, clear; Tupé Beach, located 23 kilometers
from the city, surrounded by the Rio Negro; Golden beach, in the countryside of Manaus, 20 km far from the
city center, being bathed by the stream of Tarumã and the Black River; and Cachoeira do Paricatuba, located
on the right bank of the Black River, a small tributary. The waterfall is formed by sedimentary rocks and
surrounded by lush vegetation and and access is by boat.